Carl Rogers, a preeminent American psychologist of the second half of the 20th century, stated, “If I can provide a certain type of relationship, the other person will discover within himself the capacity to use that relationship for growth, and change and personal development will occur” (Rogers, 1961, p.33).
He was making a bold assertion about the power of extraordinary helping relationships in general, (not just therapists) to do more than teach but to facilitate transformation from those seeking healing from illness and distress to those seeking enhancement of their normal human capabilities for work, sport or living well. He was promoting the view that when a person (you) are immersed in this kind of extraordinary helping relationship you are much more likely to experience a natural urge to seek, to try new things, to learn, to grow, and develop in positive ways, much more energetically than you would without this kind of attention.
It doesn’t take much experience with coaching adults in swimming to notice that most of our clients regard their swimming practice as much more than an exercise or sport but as a vital part of their physical and mental vitality. This makes the coach more than an instructor in how to move and train, but also in how to focus on what matters and how to respond to ups and downs of life that are represented in the athletic experience. This places the coach in a position to accompany and support a student as they go through a sometimes difficult and unsettling experience of physical and mental change and growth.
Rogers (1957; 2007) points to three features in helping professionals that enable them to create this extraordinary kind of helping relationship which can be readily seen in an extraordinary coaching relationship: empathy, congruence, and unconditional positive regard.
Empathy is the coach’s ability to sense some important parts of what you (the student) are experiencing and their ability to communicate this understanding to you in a way that makes you feel understood.
Congruence is the coach’s ability to be secure enough to show you on the outside what he/she is thinking and feeling on the inside regarding your person and progress as a student. They can be genuine and transparent in a tactful way that is helpful to your learning process.
Unconditional positive regard is the coach’s genuine open, accepting, warm, caring and non-judgmental attitude toward you that doesn’t require hiding or faking anything. You can feel safe to be vulnerable in your learning process with this professional.
When the skills you need to acquire and the conditions you need to prepare for are fairly easy for you, then you may not need something exceptional from the professionals who are trying to help you with that. But when you are facing greater internal or external challenges on the path to your goal, when improvement in performance may require changes in your inner being that provoke a sense of vulnerability, the quality and depth of relationship with a skilled coach can make a tremendous difference in helping you make those changes more easily. A coach who embodies these features noted above would be one who is more suited to accompany and support you on that journey.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a human. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(2), 95–103.
Rogers, C. R. (2007). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 44(3), 240–248.
I was asked recently how we would distinguish SwimMastery from, for example, a program such as ‘X’ led by a famous Olympic swimmer.
My response went something like this…
That’s a good question regarding comparison between SwimMastery and something like Program X. With some familiarity, my colleague noted that ‘Ms. X has her name and her success to draw attention. She has some great ideas and she’s a real people person. Lovely personality. And a great swimmer, of course.’ But while that is appealing on one side and there are no doubt good things to learn from one like her, there is an argument to be made about the difference between the approach elites took to swimming the way they did and an approach that works for ordinary people, particular adult-onset swimmers, many with sub-optimal conditions for which we must have a great deal more caution and consideration.
Some elites end up making great coaches (and Ms. X seems to be one of them). Though not dismissive of their practices, we have reason to think critically about the technique and the training methodology used and promoted by former elites because the injury rate is horribly high among swimmers in this realm (as reported in various swim organization stats and medical journals) and this rate appears to be institutionally accepted by as normal, just part of the sport. We do not accept those rates, and they certainly represent and inappropriate level of risk for the ordinary people we work with. The values/priorities of elites are substantially different than citizen swimmers and in the commercialized adult coaching realm there is confusion between these realms and the values and needs of the people in them.
No doubt, some elites-turned-coach can learn the context and more appropriate approaches to performance for ordinary people, but those of us who have worked through that pathway personally understand it intimately. Just as elites know what its like to take their relatively robust teenage body and put it through the grueling process to become an elite, we know what it is like to take an aged or ordinary body and put it through a careful process to perform better than ever within its boundaries. Many of our coaches come from the world of ordinary people learning to do (relatively) extraordinary things, while elite swimmers have grown up in a different world. For us a chief value is safety for the swimmer’s body and mind and their longevity in the activity – so all technique ideas must be screened through that chief value. This means several traditional/conventional swimming ideas are rejected because they are clearly connected to injury despite their alleged contribution to elite performance. Not all that makes you faster will also keep your body safe. Therefore modeling one’s swimming after an elite needs to be approached with great caution. Before getting excited and making one’s body vulnerable, we would want to take a lot more justification for the technique and training ideas of the program than just the name of the former elite swimmer leading it.
In SwimMastery, we understand that every detail of the stroke movement pattern matters. Every position, every motion, every restraint of motion has a purpose and we justify it to you in terms of physics and physiology. Consider how many other sports, martial and movement arts maintain exacting standards in their movement patterns, tolerating no deviation for safety and efficacy sake. With respect to the statistical range of variety in human body shapes and dimensions, for each stroke style there is an optimal corridor to fit motion within; staying within that corridor lowers risk while deviating increases it. We will always be guiding the swimmer into that corridor because it is the proper foundation for anyone who wants to swim for a lifetime.
Must There Be A Drop In Performance When Improving A Skill?
There are some important differences to consider when teaching a novice or beginner swimmer on this end of the experience spectrum and when teaching an expert or advanced swimmer on the other end.
A novice is considered a novice because he has no motor patterns in place for this activity he is trying to learn, or very weak ones. He does not have neural preference or muscular strength built around any patterns. It is generally easy to introduce a new movement to a novice and have him pick up on in quickly because there is little neural resistance to doing something different than before. And since he could not swim at all or not very well, a newly acquired pattern is going to immediately make him perform better than before, even if he has to pay careful attention to what he is doing.
But that may be in stark contrast to what happens when working with an advanced or expert swimmer who is seeking an adjustment or correction in their movement patterns. This swimmer has very strong neural preference and muscular strength built up around the established movement pattern and she is going to have to work against that to make a change. That existing pattern is autonomously controlled in her brain so that it functions without requiring her attention, and because of that autonomy it will put up great resistance to being altered. When this swimmer decides she wants to make an alteration to the pattern she has to pull that movement out of the autonomous control part of the brain and put back into the conscious control part so she can override the old pattern with a new one which necessarily slows everything down a lot. It can even mess up her whole performance because other autonomously controlled aspects of her performance were tied into it and when one part is pulled back into ‘slow’ conscious control the others lose a big part of their coordination and efficiency with it.
This immediate slow down or disruption to performance can understandably be alarming to the advanced athlete… who expects corrections to come easily and quickly, at virtually no cost. But this may be a consequence of a short-term viewpoint and some lack of understanding of how the brain works. In the long-term view, we understand that neural circuits have to go through a process when being altered – the more complex the change and the more complex the conditions will be for its ultimate application, the more patient the athlete will need to be with the retraining process.
But the process works. The skill is brought back into conscious control and performance is unavoidably slowed down. It is dialed in under easy conditions, tested and refined with feedback. Then the training challenges imposed upon on that skill are gradually increased. Then she is challenged to handle dual tasks (pay attention to more than just the execution of that skill) and eventually totally distracted from it so that the brain is required to pull that skill back into the autonomous control part of the brain, where it ultimately needs to be.
I see in the research of motor learning the attempt to trick the brains of expert performers to make corrections without having to pull that correction back into conscious control, to save time and prevent slowdown. But these studies seem to be looking at small correction and with measurements of performance done over hours and days, not done on major alterations done over week and months. And I have questions about the quality of the conscious cues they have tested against one another. A quick unconscious correction process would be preferable of course, but it may not often be practical for the kind of deep corrections that some athletes need to make.
So this urges us to keep in mind at least two dimension of the process when setting expectations for working with an athlete:
Where does this person fall on the novice to expert performer spectrum? How strong are existing patterns that need to be altered, and what kind of neural resistance will there be for making a change?
And, how big of a change will she be trying to make? There may be a significant difference between making small tweaks and major alterations and the kind of neural tricks one can employ to save time on the retraining process.
In other words, it’s going to cost time for any athlete, novice or advanced, small change or big. For some people and some kinds of change there will be little or no immediate drop in performance, while for others we should expect some initial, unavoidable drop in performance as part of the necessary process to build back up to an even higher level of performance than they had before with better skill on board.
What does it mean to learn the skill?
What does it mean to master the skill?
We might say that a swimmer has learned the skill when they can execute it every time, consistently, on demand. Then we might say that a swimmer has mastered the skill when they can execute it every time, consistently, without having to pay any attention to making it happen.
In the realm of motor learning (a.k.a. learning complex movement skills and improving athletic performance) the ultimate need or goal of the athlete determines when learning or mastery has actually been achieved.
In a ‘stable environment, under very easy conditions, in a relatively short amount of time we can teach someone to swim with a particular stroke style and they can be successful for the simple test swims set for them. But if that swimmer needs to use this stroke in competition, or in serious open water, they have not yet done the work to master that skill for the unstable environment.
A stable environment is where all the challenges the athlete will face are invariable and predictable, where the skills don’t need to be very flexibility. Swimming alone in a pool lane, with no competitive pressure, with the aquatic environment completely controlled is a very stable environment.
An unstable environment is where the challenge the athlete will face are quite variable and unpredictable, where the skills need to be applied with great flexibility. Swimming next to a serious opponent in competition adds some external pressure to the environment. Swimming in rough wild water adds a lot more instability to the environment. There is external pressure to perform presented by the opponent and by the context of being in a timed race. Wild open water and the weather present infinite variations and unpredictability to each swim, to each stroke even.
Photo by Ant Rozetsky on Unsplash
The conditions in which a person is practicing matters a great deal to how strong and flexible their skillfulness becomes. To get an initial grasp a difficult skill the athlete might need to first practice in a stable environment, under very easy conditions, to reduce the complexity down to a level they can manage at the start. But if these are not the conditions in which the swimmer will ultimately need to use those skills in, we have to lead them on a path that gradually moves them from practice in stable environmental conditions into practice in unstable environmental conditions of their objective.
When we are assessing the swimmer’s level of skill in test conditions that are unlike those that will be present in their ultimate objective then we call this ‘in-practice’ testing. When we are assessing their level of skill in test conditions of their ultimate objective then we call this ‘in-performance’ testing.
On some easy level we might see that they have ‘learned’ or even ‘mastered’ the skills, but true learning, true mastery has occurred only when the swimmer is able to execute those skills under the full stress of the unstable environmental conditions they intend to perform in.
Wulf, G. (2007). Attention and Motor Skill Learning. Human Kinetics.
A Systems View Of The Stroke
In a ‘systems thinking’ viewpoint on the swimming stroke (including all of the stroke styles) we understand that each body part has an influence over other body parts and is influenced by other body parts connected to it by one or more degrees. Each section of the stroke cycle affects what happens in the next section, and is affected by what has happened in the section before.
When there is an error in position or movement of one body part, it introduces error into the other parts connected to it. Those parts must do something to compensate and recover from the error. When there is error in one section of the stroke cycle, the next section begins at a disadvantaged position and greater intervention is required to compensate or correct and get the stroke cycle back onto its ideal pattern. The error creates negative feed-back into the system – we might say it ‘holds back’ the effectiveness and efficiency of the system. This compensation and correction uses up a great deal of energy, even if the athlete ends up correcting quickly and making it look OK from the outside.
When a body part is kept in its ideal position, maintaining its ideal movement, it sets up the other parts to more easily find their ideal position and movement. When one section of the stroke cycle moves through its ideal pattern the next section is at an advantage to find its ideal pattern as well. When that next section also moves through its ideal pattern the next section benefits too, and so on. This crates a positive feed-forward flow. The more consistent this feed-forward process is, the more effective and efficient the swimmer is. Not only that, the more amazing the stroke feels to that swimmer.
Everything is interconnected in the repeating movement pattern of the whole body. No swimmer starts with all the parts finely interconnected, just as no musician starts with a perfect performance in a piece of new music or group of musicians starts playing together with perfect coordination. You first start by making basic connections – pairs of connections – in the body, and eventually you connect those pairs to each other until the entire system of sections of the stroke cycle are connected into a rhythmic loop of action.
This principle of connections applies to all four strokes, but with more or less emphasis on certain connections depending on the style. Let’s apply it to the freestyle stroke since it is most popular…
We need to make a connection between the front (upper) and rear (lower) part of the body and the primary connection point is at the pelvis/hips. What happens in the front of the body will affect the rear and what happens at the rear will affect the front. If these two are connected well, they will feed-forward into each other. If not connected well, they will cause feed-back.
We need to connect the entire streamline side of the body, front wrist to ankle because the body will be supported on its side and water will be displaced primarily by that side. Water will respond better to a body that is straight and connected along the whole line, and respond worse to a body that is not. What happens on this side of the body will affect what is happening on the other.
We need to connect the recovery swing to forward momentum so that force will flow in the direction of travel and not work against the streamline side of the body. What happens on the recovery side affects what is happening on the streamline side.
We need to connect the two sides of the body at the moment of transition, so that the force generated on the catch side flows without obstruction into the streamline side to maximize forward motion.
I listed these in an order as if these are in a line, but they are not because the stroke is a loop of rhythmic action. When we view these as a loop then we see that you can intervene at any one of these connections to make a change – but you must keep a careful eye on how a change in that part will necessarily affect the other parts.
That is a broad systems view of the whole body system in the stroke cycle. We can also apply this view to the arm/shoulder motion itself. The ideal catch feeds-forward into the exit. The exit feeds forward into the recovery swing. The recovery swing feeds forward into the entry. The entry feeds forward into the extension. The extension feeds forward into the catch, and so on again and again in an ideal pattern.
You might start learning these parts separately, one-by-one, and that may be necessary for most people. But these parts cannot remain separated in your nervous system for long or you will be stifled in your progress. Any advanced guidance on adjustments in your stroke should have more and more systems language involved because, by that stage, you should be attentive to the interdependent relationships of the parts, of the sections of the stroke. A musician must eventually connect the sections of the music together and create a smoothly flowing whole.
If you are looking to fix an error in one section of your stroke cycle, you may want to first consider whether that error is a cause or a symptom of another error in a preceding section. Fixing this section should make things better for the next section (if those are truly connected in your movement pattern already). But if you consider fixing the section before, you might discover that this section either is easier to fix or possibly the problem goes away altogether.
When you make a correction in one body part, in one section of your stroke cycle, be aware that it may confuse the body parts connected to it because they have been used to compensating for an error and now they need to learn how to actually work when there is no error to compensate for. When you tighten one string on a guitar you may need to slightly re-tune the string next to it, because the changing of tension in one string may noticeably changes the tension on the next one or even all of them. Tuning the guitar, and tuning the stroke require systems thinking.