I need to start with an apology. I may offend a few of you by using the F word in the following paragraphs. Whilst some are fine with it I am aware that others are a little uncomfortable talking about sport and fat (there, I’ve said it), in the same sentence. Many of us aspire to the perfect physique, and lifestyle magazines at this time of year are full of articles about getting ready for summer and creating your beach body. However, often we are faced with a rather sobering reality when looking in the mirror. And if you’re anything like me, one of the effects of COVID has been to add inches to the waistline not remove them. In Western society being fat brings with it a myriad of preconceptions about the sort of person you are. Most are ridiculous and very few are concerned with being a top sports man or woman.
Which can be equally ridiculous
Granted, the next Olympic 400m champion is unlikely to have the nickname “Tubs” and will probably be blessed with a toned body most of us could only dream of, but what about the rest of us?
There’s no getting away from it, for most sports being overweight is a definite disadvantage. Fortunately, at the grass-roots level, this doesn’t matter much and it is still possible to see less than ideal specimens of the human form, panting up and down football fields, sweating on tennis courts and squeezed into Day-Glo lycra on bicycles most weekends. And I’m not knocking that at all (living in a somewhat glass house as I do!). Good on them I say; more power to their elbow and all that. However, it can’t be denied that the excess poundage is rarely helping them.
But with swimming things can be different.
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Because fat is less dense than water it floats in contrast to muscle. Fat people also tend to have a larger frame and consequently large lungs which also aid buoyancy. Fat can provide stores of energy, transport vitamins around the body and provide protection and insulation of vital organs. Thus, although those with excess fat deposits will certainly create additional water resistance creating drag and reducing overall speed through the water, if this isn’t the primary goal, then an excess of fat can be a positive benefit. Thus for long-distance and endurance events where fuel management and cold protection become equally as important, if not more so, than basic speed, to have more mass can be extremely beneficial.
That’s not to say that those with a larger frame can’t be fast swimmers. With a good technique and proper training there is no reason why they should be unable to register times which most other folk can only dream about. It’s only at the elite level of top competition that size really does begin to matter.
Below that pinnacle of performance larger swimmers find that many of the restrictions which hold them back on land are removed once in the water. Because it will support the body equally, fat people do not have the problems of creating undue strain on joints and muscles in the way that, say, running or jogging would do. Thus swimming can provide an invaluable route to maintaining (or starting) physical activity in a safe way which is not provided by other sports. It should, however, be noted that the benefit is not split entirely equally across the genders. Women tend to accumulate fat deposits on their legs and hips which can aid overall balance when immersed. Men on the other hand tend to develop large bellies whilst their legs can remain relatively skinny. They, therefore, have to work harder to counteract the tendency for the legs to sink and to maintain a horizontal profile. A large stomach can also introduce imbalances when the body is rotating as the centre of mass shifts.
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Very large people may experience some issues regarding flexibility and movement, however, compensations can be made for this. The overriding principle for swimmers regardless of body shape or weight is the use of good technique. If the basics of good air management and connection between the body parts are in place then factors that might initially be seen as a disadvantage for the swimmer can be quickly turned into positives. An understanding of how your body interacts with the water and acceptance of that relationship may mean a slight adaption in how you perceive your overall targets and goals. However, swimming can be enjoyed, and success achieved, regardless of body type. With the right technique, being fat is no barrier. Don’t wait until you reach some idealised view of what the perfect swimmer should look like, just go for it ! You might be surprised that having a body which you thought might hold you back is in reality a positive advantage!
Human beings have been swimming (or at least, trying to swim) for thousands of years. You’d have thought by now that we would have figured out the best way to do it wouldn’t you? The trouble is, that, as a species, we aren’t really designed to be in the water. Fins and gills are conspicuous by their absence. Some sort of rudimentary propeller would be useful but evolution seems to think otherwise. Even the internal layout of our organs is all wrong, meaning that we constantly battle to get some bits to float whilst trying to keep other bits down.
Developing a style and method that works for the human form has been a long process and it’s one that’s far from finished. New ideas are constantly being proposed, tested, adapted and adopted or discarded.
The other day I came across the story of the Japanese Crawl. Perhaps I am very ignorant but I’d not heard of this before. The American Crawl and the Trudgen Crawl, yes, but not the Japanese version.
It dates from the late 1920s during a period when swimming was virtually unheard of in the country. No swimming representatives were sent to the 1920 Antwerp games and indeed there were only two public swimming pools in the whole of Japan. Then in 1928, against all the odds Yoshiyuki Tsurata won gold in the 200m breaststroke, only the second Olympic gold medal ever won by the country. This sparked a national interest in the sport and public pools began springing up across the country.
However, they faced a problem when it came to trying to replicate the success at the highest level. During this period swimming was dominated by the Americans. The typical build was epitomised by Johnny Weissmuller who was famously to go on to have a successful movie career portraying Tarzan. He was tall, powerful and broad-shouldered, attributes which did not apply to the average Japanese competitor.
To try and narrow the disparity the Japanese turned to scientific analysis and they set about developing a style more suited to the shorter stature of their swimmers. They studied underwater footage of Weissmuller and noticed that his method was to remain stable in the water relying on his powerful arms to propel him forward. They experimented with allowing their swimmers to roll their shoulders more and increase the length of the arm movement. They also placed a far greater emphasis on the kick. This was what became known as the Japanese Crawl.
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The results were astonishing. In the 1928 Games, the Japanese swimming team had won just one gold, one silver and one bronze whilst the Americans brought back three golds, a silver and two bronze medals. By 1932 the fortunes had been completely reversed; the Americans achieved just two golds, a silver and two bronzes but the Japanese haul comprised five golds, four silvers and two bronze medals. In the process, they proved that superior technique could win out against raw power. The 100m Freestyle was won by a 15-year-old schoolboy Yasuji Mijazaki who not only won the gold but, during the semi-finals, also broke Weissmuller’s Olympic record.
And Mijazaki was not even the youngest winner in the team. That honour went to the winner of the 1500m event, Kusuo Kitamura who at 14 years and 309 days remains the youngest ever male swimmer to win a gold medal. (His overall record remained in place until 1988 when Hungarian swimmer Krisztina Egerszegi won the gold in the Women’s 200m backstroke).
With the benefit of hindsight, it is easier to analyse the importance of the Japanese Crawl to the overall development of the stroke. In many ways it was rather ahead of its time, and indeed in the immediate aftermath of the Amsterdam Games, it tended to be dismissed by other countries as being uniquely relevant only to the shorter stature of the Japanese. Today, however, whilst the emphasis on a big kick has once more been reduced in significance, the relevance of using rotation to generate forward momentum is widely adopted. Neither should we overlook the importance of analysing the swimmer from below the surface to the eventual success the team achieved. Today, this seems an obvious and essential process but in 1932 to use of underwater cameras was in its infancy and somewhat revolutionary.
All of which makes one wonder what techniques and methods which we take for granted today will over time become outdated and irrelevant and what may develop to replace them. Like the Japanese Crawl, no doubt some innovations will prove to have elements relevant to all whilst other features will fall by the wayside. Only time will tell
The pace of change is relentless and seems to be increasing. If we were to pop into a time machine and end up a hundred years into the future I have little doubt that many new and exciting developments will have occurred.
Who knows. We might even have made a start on those propellers.
As restrictions of what most of us can and cannot do due to the Covid virus remain in place, many people are looking for new ways to get out and exercise. As a result, there has been a significant increase in the number of people taking up open water swimming. Whilst the joys of being out in the open air, communing with nature are obvious, unfortunately for many of us, particularly those of us in the UK, open water swimming at this time of year also means cold water swimming. And there the search for the enjoyment can seem somewhat more challenging !
In my experience, those committed to cold water dips seem to have an almost evangelical zeal when trying to persuade others. They cite boosts to the immune system, anti-inflammatory benefits, cleansing of the blood cells, improved skin, energy boosts, increased mental toughness with better mental health in general, shared social interaction and a massive rush of endorphins which, quite simply, is guaranteed to make you feel terrific afterwards. These are pretty impressive claims. Who wouldn’t want all that?! But can they be proven ?
Well, it’s a very long list and we don’t have time to study each and every claim here. However, it is an area of active scientific investigation and results show that there is a factual basis behind many if not all of them.
Let’s look at a couple of examples. The Biohacker summit promotes itself as “the focal point for learning faster, performing better, living longer, and enjoying more what you wake up for every day.” The 2020 event was addressed by biochemist Rhonda Patrick Phd, co-founder of FoundMyFitness.com a website dedicated to promoting good health. She has studied the effects of cold on the human body. She explained that when the body is immersed in cold water it increases the levels of norepinephrine which promotes greater focus and attention, increased vigilance and a better overall mood. The drop in temperature changes the neural pathways and the body becomes more sensitive to the effect of the production of endorphins. It is thought this may even lead to an increase in life expectancy. Even extremely short periods of immersion can have a dramatic effect. Just twenty seconds in water of 4.4 degrees raises the levels of norepinephrine by as much as 300%
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The change in temperature also triggers another effect known as mitochondrial biogenesis. This process attempts to keep the body warm by producing more energy. In adipose tissue (i.e. fat) this has the result of burning the fat stores and reducing weight. In muscle tissue oxygen is used for energy which increases the aerobic capacity of the body and also aids recovery of damaged tissue (which is why sport-people often take ice-baths to recover after endurance events)
In a separate study reported by the BBC in the Autumn of 2020 Professor Giovanna Mallucci of Cambridge University announced the conclusions of a three year study using groups of cold water swimmers and tai chi students as a test group. She had found that the swimmers were producing a protein linked to the linking of cells in the brain. It is hoped that this work may be developed to help combat the onset of dementia.
How Tough Do You Need To Be?
However, these benefits all come at a cost. One needs to prepare carefully for a cold water swim and follow a thoughtful adaptation process. Some mental toughness is required, but not as much as you think when you follow a good, gradual process of adaptation, one that does not cause unnecessary stress to your body or mind. The physical and psychological discomforts can be perceived in different ways – making them more or less unpleasant. Under guidance, one can have a relatively pleasant experience, even from the start. It is an incredibly subjective experience but one which needs planning the advice and expertise of others more familiar with coping with the conditions.
In fact, if you want to add another benefit to cold water swimming with a group of friends it might be that it will increase your vocabulary. Because, in addition to all the lingo for the process of adapting, you’re going to hear all sorts of words coming out of the mouths of people you would never suspect of knowing such language – let alone using it !
What About The Workout?
It is important to notice one of the things missing from the list I have quoted as well. There are many benefits to cold water that I mentioned, but getting a big aerobic workout isn’t going to be one of them for quite a while. So if you’re looking to replace your hour long gym session with a cold water swim then you might have to think again.. Granted if you get to the stage where you are taking on Ice Mile challenges and the like there is definitely going to be an aerobic benefit. However, the vast majority won’t get to that stage. For a cold water swimmer ten minutes to a quarter of an hour is a pretty long swim. Many only manage a few minutes. That’s not to say that you shouldn’t swim, just that you should recognise that these are very different beasts.
So, you’ve girded your loins nicely, taken a deep breath (don’t stop doing that!) and decided to literally take the plunge. What now ? Rule one, particularly if you are starting out is to put safety first. So never go alone. Besides, you may well need someone who is able to support and encourage you. Choose such people wisely. Make sure they understand the process you are going through and know how to keep you safe. Preferably choose someone who has done it before themselves. There is a fine line between support and encouragement on the one hand and ill-informed badgering, bullying and peer pressure, (no matter how well intentioned), on the other. Make sure that line has not been crossed. Take things at your own speed. Sure, you’ll be out of your comfort zone, but make sure you aren’t too far out. Safety first.
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It’s a good idea to have at least one person on the bank as well. They are far more likely to be able to see what’s going on if someone gets into difficulties. And make sure you have a plan for what to do if something does go wrong. There’s no point in waiting until someone is struggling before looking round to see if there is a life-ring on the shore. Humans are not aquatic animals and there is always a certain degree of danger when we enter water. But if the temperature is low that factor multiplies significantly. Recognise that things can go very wrong very quickly. Everyone – both those in the water and those out of it – needs to be even more vigilant of the state of those around them than normal. In an emergency it is important to know what to do and how to do it. Remember too that circumstances will be different. For example, it’s no good throwing someone a rope if their hands are too cold to grasp it. So make a plan. A realistic plan. And pray you’ll never have to use it. Safety first.
One of the advantages of having an experienced friend with you is that they are likely to know the best locations in which to swim safely. It is essential that you can get in and out of the water quickly and easily. Think about conditions underfoot, the slope of the ground and, if swimming in rivers, the height of the bank. Make sure too that the water is safe. Beware of obvious things like reeds and other objects hidden beneath the water but also remember when swimming in lakes and rivers that recent rain may well have washed significant amounts of chemicals into the water from nearby farmland. Regardless of the season, if the water quality is low, don’t go in. If swimming in the sea ensure that you know all there is to know about any currents which might take you unawares. Safety first.
There is little doubt that cold water swimming can bring enormous enjoyment and well-being. You rarely see someone who has just completed a swim in a freezing river, lake or coastline who isn’t grinning like a maniac. Undoubtedly it comes at a cost but you too could feel like that. If you think you’re brave enough, go for it ! Good luck !!
It’s not uncommon that with swimming drills you can find yourself stuck in a rut trying to get a skill to stick so that it shows up in your normal swimming. No matter how hard or how often you practice any improvement seems elusive. If that sounds familiar here’s an experiment you might like to try.
Now, cards on the table: this might not work. But it might. That’s what an experiment is right, testing out stuff to see what works and what doesn’t ? And what do you have to lose ? It’s really simple. Just try changing something about how you are doing the drill.
I know this sounds counter-intuitive. Surely the whole point of doing drills is to try and repeat the same actions in the same way, over and over, in order to imprint them into ‘muscle memory’, isn’t it? Yes, it is. And this is why you should try changing something else about the drill.
Let me explain where my idea comes from.
In the mid 1970’s a trio of psychologists from the University of Michigan performed an experiment to study the effect of location on learning 1. The basic structure was to take two groups of students and ask each of them to study a list of forty four four-letter words. They were given two ten-minute sessions to do this. Then, three hours later, they were tested to see how many they could recall. The difference between the groups was startling. One group averaged a recall rate of 16 words whilst the other managed an average of 24.
The difference was that the study sessions for one group were held each time in a neat bright room overlooking a courtyard. However, the better performing group held the first session in the courtyard room whilst the second session was held in a cluttered room in a basement. Care was taken by the researchers that the environment for the study was the only element of the experiment which was altered.
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So why the difference ? Why should the same task have an increase in success of 40% simply by varying the location in which the study was held ? Frankly, it seems that opinion is divided, and far too complex to cover here. The upshot really is that no-one seems to know for certain. What should be of interest to us though is whether there is evidence that this study using an academic task could be replicated with a motor task such as swimming.
To be honest, research seems to be sparse (which is why I said your experiment may not work !). A study was done by the philosopher John Locke who observed a man practicing a fairly complicated dance in a room which contained an old trunk.2 However, having perfected it, the man had difficulty replicating the dance to such a degree of competency in environments where the trunk was not present. It’s possible that a similar connection between environment and learning may have been occurring.
So, next time you go to practice your drills I suggest you try a similar experiment and see if it works for you. Don’t change the drills themselves, instead, if you normally swim at a certain pool, in a certain lane and a certain time of the day, try changing one of those variables. If you are able, try swimming in open water rather than the pool. Even just wearing a different costume might make a difference. Maybe no costume at all if you can get away with it ! (Please note, however, that you’re on your own with that one; I accept no liability for any consequences arising from skinny dipping at the Family Swim sessions of your local pool!).
At the very least, before you get in the water, take a few moments to fully take in what’s going on around you; who else is in the pool? Is the lifeguard sitting still or wandering about? How noisy is it and exactly what can you hear? Is the water a different temperature from normal? What can you smell and is that usual? Intently tune into your surroundings and become hyper-vigilant. See if you can spot any small detail about your surroundings that might make this swim stand out from all the others.
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Let your brain become aware of anything and everything which differentiates this session from the last one you completed. Who knows the effect of any variations might have on your success once you start the actual task of swimming?
What I am proposing is that when you change something in your environment or routine, or even just a change in your awareness, this can have a positive effect on your performance in the drills. You just might discover something new or break through to the skill you’ve been aiming for. I’d be really interested to hear how you get on
- Steven M Smith, Arthur Glenberg and Robert A. Bjork “Environmental Context and Human Memory” Memory and Cognition Vol. 6 No. 4
- John Locke “An Essay on Human Understanding and a Treatise on the Conduct of Understanding Philadelphia: Hayes & Zell Publishers
A Systems View Of The Stroke
In a ‘systems thinking’ viewpoint on the swimming stroke (including all of the stroke styles) we understand that each body part has an influence over other body parts and is influenced by other body parts connected to it by one or more degrees. Each section of the stroke cycle affects what happens in the next section, and is affected by what has happened in the section before.
When there is an error in position or movement of one body part, it introduces error into the other parts connected to it. Those parts must do something to compensate and recover from the error. When there is error in one section of the stroke cycle, the next section begins at a disadvantaged position and greater intervention is required to compensate or correct and get the stroke cycle back onto its ideal pattern. The error creates negative feed-back into the system – we might say it ‘holds back’ the effectiveness and efficiency of the system. This compensation and correction uses up a great deal of energy, even if the athlete ends up correcting quickly and making it look OK from the outside.
When a body part is kept in its ideal position, maintaining its ideal movement, it sets up the other parts to more easily find their ideal position and movement. When one section of the stroke cycle moves through its ideal pattern the next section is at an advantage to find its ideal pattern as well. When that next section also moves through its ideal pattern the next section benefits too, and so on. This crates a positive feed-forward flow. The more consistent this feed-forward process is, the more effective and efficient the swimmer is. Not only that, the more amazing the stroke feels to that swimmer.
Everything is interconnected in the repeating movement pattern of the whole body. No swimmer starts with all the parts finely interconnected, just as no musician starts with a perfect performance in a piece of new music or group of musicians starts playing together with perfect coordination. You first start by making basic connections – pairs of connections – in the body, and eventually you connect those pairs to each other until the entire system of sections of the stroke cycle are connected into a rhythmic loop of action.
This principle of connections applies to all four strokes, but with more or less emphasis on certain connections depending on the style. Let’s apply it to the freestyle stroke since it is most popular…
We need to make a connection between the front (upper) and rear (lower) part of the body and the primary connection point is at the pelvis/hips. What happens in the front of the body will affect the rear and what happens at the rear will affect the front. If these two are connected well, they will feed-forward into each other. If not connected well, they will cause feed-back.
We need to connect the entire streamline side of the body, front wrist to ankle because the body will be supported on its side and water will be displaced primarily by that side. Water will respond better to a body that is straight and connected along the whole line, and respond worse to a body that is not. What happens on this side of the body will affect what is happening on the other.
We need to connect the recovery swing to forward momentum so that force will flow in the direction of travel and not work against the streamline side of the body. What happens on the recovery side affects what is happening on the streamline side.
We need to connect the two sides of the body at the moment of transition, so that the force generated on the catch side flows without obstruction into the streamline side to maximize forward motion.
I listed these in an order as if these are in a line, but they are not because the stroke is a loop of rhythmic action. When we view these as a loop then we see that you can intervene at any one of these connections to make a change – but you must keep a careful eye on how a change in that part will necessarily affect the other parts.
That is a broad systems view of the whole body system in the stroke cycle. We can also apply this view to the arm/shoulder motion itself. The ideal catch feeds-forward into the exit. The exit feeds forward into the recovery swing. The recovery swing feeds forward into the entry. The entry feeds forward into the extension. The extension feeds forward into the catch, and so on again and again in an ideal pattern.
You might start learning these parts separately, one-by-one, and that may be necessary for most people. But these parts cannot remain separated in your nervous system for long or you will be stifled in your progress. Any advanced guidance on adjustments in your stroke should have more and more systems language involved because, by that stage, you should be attentive to the interdependent relationships of the parts, of the sections of the stroke. A musician must eventually connect the sections of the music together and create a smoothly flowing whole.
If you are looking to fix an error in one section of your stroke cycle, you may want to first consider whether that error is a cause or a symptom of another error in a preceding section. Fixing this section should make things better for the next section (if those are truly connected in your movement pattern already). But if you consider fixing the section before, you might discover that this section either is easier to fix or possibly the problem goes away altogether.
When you make a correction in one body part, in one section of your stroke cycle, be aware that it may confuse the body parts connected to it because they have been used to compensating for an error and now they need to learn how to actually work when there is no error to compensate for. When you tighten one string on a guitar you may need to slightly re-tune the string next to it, because the changing of tension in one string may noticeably changes the tension on the next one or even all of them. Tuning the guitar, and tuning the stroke require systems thinking.